Agricultural development is one of the most powerful tools to end extreme poverty, boost shared prosperity and feed 9 billion people by 2050. Growth in the agriculture sector is about two to four times more effective in raising incomes among the poorest compared to other sectors. This is important for 78 percent of the world’s poor who live in rural areas and depend largely on farming to make a living.
Agriculture is also crucial to economic growth: it accounts for one-third of gross-domestic product (GDP) and three-quarters of employment in Sub-Saharan Africa.
But agriculture-driven growth and poverty reduction, as well as food security are at risk: A warming climate could cut crop yields by more than 25 percent. Agriculture and land use change are also responsible for between 19–29 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigation in the agriculture sector is part of the solution to climate change.
India is known as “Land of Villages”. Near about 67% of India’s population live in villages. The occupation of villagers is agriculture. Agriculture is the dominant sector of our economy & contributes in various ways such as:
♦ National Economy: In 1990 – 91, agriculture contributed 31.6% of the National Income of India, while manufacturing sector contributed 17.6%. It is substantial than other countries for example in 1982 it was 34.9% in India against 2% in UK, 3% in USA, 4 % in the Canada. It indicated that the more advanced stage of development the smaller is the share of agriculture in National Income.
♦ Total Employment: Around 65% population is working & depends on agriculture and allied activities. Nearly 70% of the rural population earns its livelihood from agriculture and other occupation allied to agriculture. In cities also, a considerable part of labor force is engaged in jobs depending on processing & marketing of agricultural products.
♦ Industrial Inputs: Most of the industries depend on the raw material produced by agriculture, so agriculture is the principal source of raw material to the industries. The industries like cotton textile, jute, paper, sugar depends totally on agriculture for the supply of raw material. The small scale and cottage industries like handloom and power loon, ginning and pressing, oil crushing, rice husking, sericulture fruit processing, etc are also mainly agro based industries.
♦ Food Supply: During this year targeted food production was 198 million tons & which is to be increased 225 million tons by the end of this century to feed the growing population of India i.e. 35 corer in 1951 and 100 corers at the end of this century. India, thus, is able to meet almost all the need of its population with regards to food by develop intensive program for increasing food production.
♦ State Revenue: The agriculture is contributing the revenue by agriculture taxation includes direct tax and indirect tax. Direct tax includes land revenue, cesses and surcharge on land revenue, cesses on crops & agril income tax. Indirect tax induces sales tax, custom duty and local octri, etc. which farmer pay on purchase of agriculture inputs.
♦ Trade: Agriculture plays and important role in foreign trade attracting valuable foreign exchange, necessary for our economic development. The product from agriculture based industries such as jute, cloth, tinned food, etc. contributed to 20% of our export. Around 50 % of total exports are contributed by agril sector. Indian agriculture plays and important role in roads, rails & waterways outside the countries. Indian in roads, rails and waterways used to transport considerable amount of agril produce and agro based industrial products. Agril products like tea, coffee, sugar, oil seeds, tobacco; spices, etc. also constitute the main items of export from India.
The agricultural sector is going to face enormous challenges in order to feed the 9.6 billion people that the FAO predicts are going to inhabit the planet by 2050: food production must increase by 70% by 2050, and this has to be achieved in spite of the limited availability of arable lands, the increasing need for fresh water (agriculture consumes 70 per cent of the world's fresh water supply) and other less predictable factors, such as the impact of climate change, which, according a recent report by the UN could lead, among other things, to changes to seasonal events in the life cycle of plant and animals.
One way to address these issues and increase the quality and quantity of agricultural production is using sensing technology to make farms more "intelligent" and more connected thorugh the so-called "precision agriculture" also known as ‘smart farming’.
It's something that's already happening, as corporations and farm offices collect vast amounts of information from crop yields, soil-mapping, fertiliser applications, weather data, machinery, and animal health. In a subset of smart farming, Precision Livestock Farming (PLF), sensors are used for monitoring and early detection of reproduction events and health disorders in animals.
We provide Agriculture course in two levels as Professional Designation for undergraduate students and Advance PG Program for Graduated Students. The details of the courses are as below:
Careers in Agriculture and Forestry make up one of the largest industries and sources of long-term employment in the country, providing jobs for millions of Americans. These careers supply us with a multitude of food products and alternative energies, among many other important resources for sustaining our country and contribution to the world economy. In addition, these careers - particularly those associated with Forestry - conserve our natural resources and assure we have bountiful supplies of land to utilize in the future. Many of the careers in the Agriculture and Forestry industry are considered “Green Careers,” meaning that the careers are involved in preserving or protecting our environmental resources.
India is among the largest producers of vegetables and fruits in the world and has an equally strong floriculture base. Today India’s agriculture has become globalised and the idea of integrating Indian agriculture with the world economy is getting support. India has enormous potential as an exporter of agricultural commodities ranging from mushrooms to flowers, spices, cereals, oilseeds and vegetables. The spurt in government support for export of agri-products has evoked considerable interest among the large business houses which have worked out agreements for technology transfer, marketing tie-ups, and management and trading contacts with leading foreign counterparts. Horticulture with its offshoot floriculture has become a focus of export activity. India’s exports of roses, carnations, gladioli, chrysanthemums, jasmine and other tropical plants and flowers are touching new heights.
In the field of fruits and vegetables too, India has tremendous export potential. With the commercialisation of agriculture and horticulture there are varied opportunities for salaried jobs as well as entrepreneurship. While salaried jobs with various government and private concerns provide a regular income, entrepreneurship can generate handsome profits.
Landscapers and horticulturists are hired by hotels, health farms, and holiday resorts to beautify their surroundings. Florists and nurseries are doing lucrative business especially in the metropolitan cities. Suburban farmhouses have become important suppliers for the domestic market.